A bolt action in a firearm is characterized by the metal cylinder that houses the fire mechanism. This action is located inside the frame that sits directly behind the chamber. It is operated using a handle that sticks out on the right side of the firearm; however, if you are left-handed, the firearm can be modified.
The bolt action normally rotates on closing the engaging lugs that hold it in place firmly. To load the round in the chamber, lift the handle and pull it backwards to eject the empty shell casing. Now push it forward to load the next round into the chamber from the magazine, and lock it back down in its place. The weapon is now ready to fire. Note that some bolt action weapons cock on closing and others on opening.
This entire action is done is done is one fluid motion, the rate of fire depends directly on the proficiency of the person wielding the firearm.