METHODS OF BUILDING FIRES
There are several ways you can build fires in a survival situation and each has its own advantages. Depending on the situation you find yourself in and the material you have available and can procure, bellow are four ways to build a fire.
To build a tepee fire, gather sticks of kindling and a bunch of tinder and arrange them in a shape of a cone or a tepee. Leave some room in between the sticks so you can light the fire right in the center of the arrangement. As the fire begins to burn, the kindling and tinder on the inside of the tepee will begin to fall inward, feeding the fire until it reaches the logs on the outside. A tepee fire burns quite well, and can even burn with damp or wet wood.
To start this type of fire, find a green stick, preferably a bamboo, and stick it firmly into the ground at the angle of 30-degrees. This part is important; the end of the stick you push into the ground should be facing the direction the wind is blowing from. Now find pieces of kindling and lean them against the green stick. Now light the fire at the base of the green stick. As the fire begins to burn and consume the kindling, add more when needed.
CROSS DITCH FIRE
This method is an effective one if the fire burns itself out repeatedly. Dig a cross where each line is 30 centimeters in length and at least 8 centimeters deep. Place a bunch of tinder in the center of the cross and build a pyramid made of kindling above it. The cross you dug will allow the air to pass freely under the fire, providing the much need draft to keep the fire burning.
This fire is large and a long burning one. To create this type, start by placing two small pieces of logs and/or branches parallel to each other on the ground. Now place another layer of branches across the parallel logs, now continue to add about 3 to 4 more layers. Note that each layer would be smaller and at right angle to the layer beneath it. Start a fire on top of the pyramid. As the fire burns, it will gradually ignite the logs below it, giving you a fire that burns in a downward fashion that needs no tending to, until morning.